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Information for Patients

A few words for kidney

The kidneys are the natural filters of the body are designed to detoxify us from harmful and unnecessary substances. Serve as a "purification units" which eliminate unnecessary and hazardous substances from the blood in the urine. The removal of toxins and excess fluid from the blood are the main functions of the kidneys, which filter and clean everyday 200 liters of blood around. The production of urine is an extremely complex process essential to maintaining a stable balance of chemical constituents of the body. The importance of the kidney to the body indicated by the blood supply to them, which represents ~ 25% of the total blood supply to the heart - quite high considering that the kidneys are 0.5% by weight of somatos.Einai the sophisticated laboratories of the agency to regulate salt, water, acids and electrolytes. Moreover, they produce a significant number of hormones that influence various body functions. Further, vitamin D, which regulates the movement of calcium and phosphorus for healthy bones, erythropoietin, which stimulates production of red blood cells, parathyroid hormone and substances that help regulate blood pressure. Finally, the kidneys process and eliminate from the body drugs and toxins.

  

Chronic Kidney Disease

Reduction of kidney function when they are unable, more or less to perform the basic functions we call chronic kidney disease. The presence of abnormal findings or specific indicators of damage, such as disturbances in the composition of blood or urine or imaging tests, and the presence of renal failure for a period exceeding three months. This result can not be properly maintaining the homeostasis of fluid, electrolyte body, regulate blood pH, regulating acid excretion and re-aspiration of the elimination of useless-final degradation products of metabolism and hormonal kidney function (production of vitamin-D, parathyroid hormone, erythropoietin).

Kidney disorders may lead to complications in the body. Indeed, lesions of the kidney in the early stages are not detected early, so not only are not treated well get worse.

There are numerous causes of kidney disease. Two of the most important are diabetes and high blood pressure (known as hypertension). Diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar and affects the blood vessels of the body causing dysfunction of many organs, including heart, eyes, nerves and kidneys. Hypertension, especially if not adequately dealt with drugs can lead to heart complications, stroke and chronic renal disease.

Also other cases affecting the kidneys are:

  • Diseases that cause inflammation and damage the kidneys, called glomerulonephritis
  • Inherited kidney diseases such as polycystic disease
  • deformities caused by birth
  • Diseases generalized body affecting the defense / immune system of the body, such as systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Obstruction of kidney stones, cancer or prostate in men
  • Frequent recurrent UTIs
  • Abuse of drugs and doping

 

Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease

The CKD is a "silent" disease - half of sufferers are unaware they have the disease. The symptoms of CKD are often not appear until it has already lost more than 50% of the functioning of both kidneys. Symptoms in advanced stage of CKD are:

  • Reduced or no urine production (anuria)
  • Fatigue
  • Decreased alertness
  • Confusion
  • Pale skin
  • palpitations
  • Dry mouth
  • Feeling thirsty

 

The usual complications are:

  • Hypertension
  • Anemia
  • dyslipidaemia
  • Osteopatheia
  • Malnutrition
  • Neuropathy
  • Increased risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Reduced functionality and wellness.

 

Chronic kidney disease is a serious public health problem. The International Society of Nephrology Institutes estimates that more than 500 million people worldwide have some degree of CKD, nearly one in 10 people in the general population, while the disease is diagnosed in approximately 250,000 new patients every year. Worldwide about 1.7 million people treated for ESRD.

The diagnosis can be made using the following simple tests:

  • Urine (detection of proteinuria, hematuria, etc.)
  • A blood test (creatinine measurement) for calculating the rate of glomerular filtration GFR, a very reliable indicator of renal function, should be regularly checked for risk groups.
  • Imaging tests such as ultrasound.

 

Prevention of chronic kidney disease include:

  • Identification of risk factors (older age, low weight at birth, family history of chronic renal disease).
  • Identification of factors (diabetes, high blood pressure, autoimmune diseases, urinary stones, polycystic disease, congenital malformations).

Treatment of chronic kidney disease include:

  • Recognition and suspension if he of factors: (check sugar levels, blood pressure, proteinuria, cholesterol, obesity, specific treatment against glomerular solinarodiameson or diseases).
  • Treatment of the same complications of renal disease (hypertension, proteinuria, anemia, bone disease, impaired nutrition
  • Pharmaceuticals: Depending on the triggering event, but for these complications of renal disease.
  • Replacement therapy in renal function: For years ESRD. The options in this case are the following:
    • Hemodialysis:
      The patient treated blood clearance from the useless metabolic substances through a special dialysis machine, usually three times a week and then modified depending on how patient and duration of dialysis as the associated diseases and habits of how his life.
    • Peritoneal dialysis:
      The patient treated by dialysis unneeded metabolic substances through specific solutions entering the peritoneal cavity daily.

 


Renal transplantation: The patient receives a kidney transplant. This graft can come from living or cadaveric donor. The patient needs to continue with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. It is imperative but continuous administration of medicines (called immunosuppressive drugs) to prevent rejection of kidney transplant by the body.

BASIC PREVENTIVE MEASURES

To protect against both renal and against cardiovascular disease requires:

  • Regular medical checks
  • Adjustment of blood pressure
  • Control of glucose, cholesterol and anemia
  • Stop smoking
  • Increase physical activity
  • Control of body weight